Annotated Bibliography for Standard 4
1. Williams, Belinda, Closing the Achievement Gap: A
vision for Changing Beliefs and Practices, 2003. The author focuses on closing the achievement
gap via research based dynamics that are critical to urban students’ academic
achievement patterns and success.
2. National Collaborative on Diversity in the Teaching
Force, Assessment of Diversity in America’s Teaching Force: A Call to Action,
Washington, D.C. National Collaborative on Diversity in the Teaching Force
2004. This report emphasizes the
importance of diversity in reference to cultural competency and ethnicity and
how they correlate to successful student achievement via pedagogical strategies
developed and predicated on cultural differences.
3. Chen, Jie-Qui,
Krechevsk, Mara, and Viens, Julie, Building on Children’s Strengths: The
Experience of Project Spectrum, 1998. This book presents the history of
Project Spectrum, a 10-year research project dedicated to developing an
alternative approach to curriculum and assessment that respects the diverse
interests and abilities that children bring to the preschool and early
elementary classroom. This book focuses
on curriculum and assessment in respect to cultural diverse interest and
abilities that early childhood students bring to the classroom and school
Ronald, Necessary Practices and Policies to Close the Student Achievement Gaps,
Presentation to NEA Symposium on Critical Issues to Educators, Washington D.C.,
2004. This presentation focuses on
professional development of educators in terms of understanding the importance
of knowledge of cultural differences and collegiality and support in focusing
on cultural differences in developing pedagogical strategies in closing the
student achievement gaps.
5. Lustig, Myron W., Koester, Jolene, Intercultural
Competence: Interpersonal Communication. Across Cultures 2003. This book focuses on significant cultural
patterns and how one can be successful in the multicultural environment that
exists today. The book also emphasizes
ethical and social issues that are paramount in relating and understanding
6. Hofstede, Geert, Cultures and Organizations:
Software of the Mind, 1991. This
author explores the in depth nature of various cultures and their complexities
in terms of what one must reach in understanding the true meaning of culture.
7. Dresser, Norine, Multicultural Manners: new rules
of etiquette for a changing society, 1996. The author focuses on the uses
of correct understanding of communication and behavior to be used in a wide
range of cultural interactions and situations pertaining to etiquette, body
language, word choices, religion and the like.
8. Samovar, L.A., and Porter, R. E., Communication Between
Cultures, 1991. The authors focus on
the meaning and impact of culture of individuals in their daily living in
regards to their respective beliefs, expressions, personality, values and the
9. Texin, T., Survey: Who Do You Save? 2002.
The author focuses on the differences in the various cultures in terms
of their perspectives, beliefs, values, reasoning and the like that are taken
into account in resolving problems.
Carol and E. Elliott, E., “Achievement Motivation,” 1983. The authors focus on achievement motivation
through the process of learning where achievement can be recognized by the
learner or group, and not on outcomes, thus seeing mistakes as part of the
learning process as opposed to failure.
11. Corbett, Dick, Wilson, Bruce, Williams,
Belinda, Effort and Excellence
in Urban Classrooms: Expecting—and Getting—Results With All Students, 2002. The
authors focus on closing the achievement gapfor low-income students by focusing on capabilities
of students, thus creating intrinsic motivation that fostering success in
students leads to motivation for achieving more success by students.
12. Lumsden, Linda, S., “Student Motivation to
Learn,” 1994. The author focuses on students’ beliefs and
attitudes concerning learning as a result of modeling, communication,
socialization, direct instruction and socialization by influential people in
their lives such as teachers and parents.
13. Flannery, M.E., “A new look at America's English
language learners”, 2009. The
author focuses on the growth and myths of English Language Learners in the
United States, and the successful stories of how barriers were successfully
eliminated in achieving success in education.
The most important
and beneficial information that I have learned from this study is the
understanding and importance of culture and how it impacts student
achievement. Successful student
achievement and communication occur when cultural differences from all ethnic
groups are understood, respected and valued.
Educators must make it a priority in professional development to not
only understand cultural differences, but focus on developing strategies for
implementation in curriculum and pedagogy for students to reach their highest
level of achievement and academic success.
The individual and not the group in terms of one size fit all, must be
emphasized. We must approach our teaching from the relevancy of culture in
terms of what is valued by the student and how he or she is motivated in
learning as a result of his or her beliefs, make up and cultural traditions. We
must eliminate stereotypical assumptions, and labels for ethic groups and
cultures in achieving success in regards to teaching, learning and
communication. Successful communication and relationships with parents of different
ethnicities are enhanced when we are more knowledgeable, understanding, and
receptive to their cultural differences as well. All in all educators must
become aware of the trends of diversity in the classrooms and schools and adapt
our views, curriculum, and teaching to accommodate these trends.
This is in
essence the most important and beneficial information that I gleaned from this
study of Being a Culturally Competent Educator.